Thursday, December 29, 2016

Late December Redfish

We've had two weeks of exceptional weather for the end of the year and the fishing can't be better. The big reds have been all over Matlacha Pass and if you can drop a live shrimp or well tied crab fly in front of them you should get a quick eat. This will probably change before the weekend with morning temps dropping into the low 50's with an oncoming cold front. You'll still be able to find these fish after the temps drop but they'll be more active later in the day. Sleep in a bit next week and go fishing after lunch time. The late incoming tide will be your friend in Matlacha Pass starting this weekend.

Monday, December 19, 2016

New Beavertail Mosquito Video

Be sure to watch this one on the full screen setting. Beavertail Skiffs: Mosquito from Beavertail Skiffs on Vimeo.

Saturday, December 17, 2016

Winter White Pelicans In Matlacha Pass

I love these big migratory birds and look forward to seeing them this time each year. White pelicans are almost twice as large as their brown cousins and much more photogenic.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Very Low Tides Off Pine Island


This is a common sight on almost every flat in Matlacha Pass this week, at least for a few hours.  In case you don't know what you're looking at, those are crab traps on the Indian Fields and they're normally covered with water.  We've got some of the lowest tides of the year happening right now and while this might make getting around a bit of a chore, the fishing can be excellent once the water starts moving.  You kayakers should be having a blast chasing reds in this area.  Just follow the mullet and you'll find the redfish.  I didn't see any tails this morning, which was surprising since the wind was dead calm, but I'm hoping that will change since the water temps did a quick rebound after last week's cold front.  We've got another two weeks until the Christmas snowbirds return so get out there while the flats are still quiet. 

Thursday, December 8, 2016

Christmas Is Coming

Here's my article from this month's Coastal Angler Magazine.  Hope it helps some of you doing a bit of shopping.


With Christmas coming at the end of the month, some of you might be thinking about picking up a first saltwater fly rod for yourself or another angler in your life. If you have no idea what to look for or where to start let me give you a few suggestions.

  For almost every inshore situation, especially along the coast of SW Florida, a 9-foot long, 8-weight rod is just about perfect. They will cast the flies and land most of the fish that cruise our flats without much trouble. This size is also perfect for freshwater bass fishing, too.

  You’ll want to match the rod with a large arbor, adjustable drag reel made from bar-stock aluminum. These are more corrosion resistant than the less expensive cast aluminum models and worth the extra money. The large arbor will also allow you to crank the fly line in much faster, which is a great help when fighting a hard running saltwater fish.

  And speaking of fly line, you’ll want to spool the reel with a weight-forward, floating fly line for the shallows. Intermediate or sinking fly lines are only useful in deeper waters and are a bit more difficult to cast, especially for beginners.

  Now if you’re a complete novice and everything I just wrote sounded like a foreign language, don’t worry. It’s just a very basic outline and any local fly shop (or even Mr. Google) will help fill in the blanks. With dozens of rod and reel makers doing business right now, you’re only limited by your budget. There are some excellent $99 combos that will work just fine or you could easily drop over $1000 on just a rod for someone who Santa thinks has been extra good this Christmas.

  If I were personally buying someone their first saltwater rod, I would start them off with an 8-weight BVK from Temple Fork Outfitters. This fast action, 4 piece has been around for several years and is one of the best-selling fly rods on the market. They come with a lifetime warranty and still retail for only $250. That’s an astounding price for a piece of gear with so much quality and capability. You’ll literally have to spend an extra $500 to get something that casts better. Pair it with one of Temple Fork’s Super Large Arbor reels, which also retail for around $250, along with 200 yards of 20# backing and you’re almost ready to hit the water.

  The last thing you’ll need is the fly line and I can’t recommend Royal Wulff’s Bermuda Shorts Triangle Taper highly enough. It’s the only fly line I’ve used for the last six years and I have no intention of changing that. If you’re an experienced caster and haven’t tried it, do yourself a favor and give it a shot. This 8-weight line matched with the Temple Fork BVK combo is as close to perfect as you can get, and all for around $600 total.

And in case you’re wondering, I have no financial affiliation with any of these companies. I have both fly and spinning gear from at least half a dozen different manufactures but this is always my first choice when people ask me where they should start. Best of luck and Merry Christmas.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

December On Pine Island


Saltwater fly fishing is not just a game for the shallow water crowd.  It’s true that the sport is mainly embraced by anglers with flats skiffs and kayaks here in SW Florida, but folks running the larger bay boats and center consoles should also give it a closer look, especially this time of year. 

December is usually the last month we have before the cold fronts and their northern winds start churning up Charlotte Harbor.  Our water temps are currently still in the lower 70’s and plenty of species are happily feeding in the 3 to 10’ range.  That makes this the perfect time to throw flies into the deeper drop offs from Burnt Store to Boca Grande.  This is where some of the most aggressive fish can be found right now and they’ll usually eat anything that swims.

Right before Thanksgiving, my anglers had several terrific late morning fly fishing trips in the Harbor just by following the birds.  Diving terns and gulls are a sure sign of hungry predators and this time of year that can mean big schools of Spanish mackerel, jacks, and bluefish.  We came across lots of feeding frenzies just north of Bokeelia and got effortless hookups with any pattern from my fly box.  This was usually happening in about 6’ of water and we often had one or more bay boats tossing live bait with much heavier rods while floating next to my 18’ Beavertail flats skiff.

If you’re one of the numerous owners of a 24 Pathfinder or similar hull and don’t have at least one fly rod under your gunnel, now is the time to fix that.  When a half acre of ladyfish are blitzing glass minnows in the middle of Charlotte Harbor, nothing will make you smile more than sticking a few of these insane jumpers with a 7 or 8-weight outfit.  Trust me, you’ll instantly discover a whole new appreciation for these “trash fish” when they’re ripping off a bunch of fly line from the deck and pulling your reel into the backing.  Think of this as the ultimate way to catch cut bait. 

You really don’t need to spend that much money for a solid fly outfit to use in the deeper water.  There are plenty of great rods out there in the $99 range that are more than capable of landing anything that swims inshore around here.  You can pair that with an equally inexpensive, bar-stock aluminum reel that will easily stand up to the salt and you’re ready to fish.  Just look for something with a lifetime warranty and you can’t go wrong. 

Flies are obviously an important part of your deeper water arsenal and this is the really easy part.  Your entire fly box can be filled with nothing more than Clouser Minnows of different colors and sizes, and you’ll be in great shape.  The standard green and white pattern tied on a #2 hook will be eaten by just about every predator in Florida.  They’re not too expensive to buy, either locally or online, and they’re very easy to tie on your own. 

So the next time you’re out on the 24’ bay boat, toss a weighted Clouser Minnow into 6’ of water anywhere in Charlotte Harbor and chances are you’ll pull something off the bottom.  It might be an unwanted catfish or underrated ladyfish, but you also might bring in a hard pulling jack crevalle or a great tasting pompano from the same spot.  Best of all, you’ll get some experience with a proven type of tackle that will be invaluable to your saltwater skills.  Good luck out there.

Friday, December 2, 2016

Beavertail Skiffs Demo Day On Matlacha

If you're looking for a new toy from Santa stop by the Old Fish House Marina on Matlacha tomorrow from 10AM to 4PM and check out the latest Beavertail Skiffs.  They'll have a pair of all new Mosquitoes, as well as a Micro, Strike and Vengeance all in the water for test rides.  You can also meet with company owners Will and Liz to talk options and pricing.  This is always a very busy event but the Marina is an excellent place to hang out, have lunch and listen to some live music in between boat rides.  Hope to see you there. 

Monday, November 28, 2016

Still Some Red Tide, But Plenty Of Redfish Around Pine Island

Yes, we're still getting over the lingering red tide that killed a lot of bait (and quite a few gamefish,) in Charlotte Harbor and along our Gulf beaches.  This has been going on for over two weeks now and is finally dissipating enough that I'm hearing of good catches off the north part of Pine Island.  I've spent the entire time south of the Matlacha Bridge where the algae bloom never reached and had no problem putting my anglers on fish each morning.  Getting them to eat was another story, of course. 

This morning I had a very rare day on the bow of a skiff with a rod in my hand thanks to my buddy Tyler.  As expected, it was too windy to fly fish so the spinning gear came out instead.  That never bothers me, especially when the reds are extra spooky.  Whipping a fly line back and forth over their heads is never a good thing but a well placed live shrimp is hard to refuse.  That's what fooled the one in this photo, a perfect 24 incher that was in a small school hugging the mangroves near McArdle Island.  He'll be turned into ceviche tomorrow afternoon and there are still a few hundred more out there just like him. 

Be careful with the low tides this week, the water is much skinnier than the charts are reporting thanks to the wind.  But if you've got the right boat, kayak, or paddleboard, reds like this should be easy to spot along the south Matlacha Pass shorelines. 

Sunday, November 27, 2016

Pine Island Fly Fishing Club Meeting On 11/28

The monthly Pine Island Fly Fishing Club meeting will happen on Monday, Nov. 28th at the Matlacha Community Park Civic Center at 6:30 PM.  Parking is free and we only ask a $3 donation to cover the cost of renting the hall.  This is always a great time with lots of local info and a chance to meet up with other SW Florida anglers.  Hope to see you there. 

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Winter Pompano Are Here Early

The best tasting fish on the flats of Pine Island is also one of the best fighting for their size, especially on the fly. Pompano are a common catch over the deeper grass flats right now, especially for the folks dropping shrimp-tipped jigs on the bottom. Yes, you'll have to put up with a few too many catfish using this technique but a nice legal size pomp is more than worth it.

Sight fishing for them with a fly rod, like my buddy Phil did in the photo, is a lot harder. Obviously, you'll need some clear and shallow water to do this. The sand bars running along the east wall of Charlotte harbor are already a good place to find them. Schooling pompano are fast movers and often travel with mullet. They can even look the same so as a rule I have my anglers cast to every dark shape I see running across the sand that isn't an obvious catfish. Stingrays are also a magnet for pompano (as well as a lot of other gamefish) since they constantly spook crabs and shrimp out from under their wings as the float across the bottom. Fish will cling right to their backs and pounce on anything that moves. If you see a large ray, drop your fly on it and start stripping immediately. Pompano prefer crab and shrimp patterns but I've had them hit Clouser Minnows and even tarpon flies.

Last year these fish were all over the Charlotte Harbor sand bars just before Christmas but they seem to be here a month early. Our recent, and quickly fading, red tide didn't seem to affect the pompano and I didn't see any dead ones floating anywhere. The water is beautifully clear in the Harbor right now and just keep getting brighter. Get up there and give these guys a shot.

Friday, November 18, 2016

New Beavertail Skiffs At The Ft. Myers Boat Show


Stop by the Ft. Myers Boat today through Sunday and you can check out hundreds of different boats from kayaks to million dollar yachts.  Two of the newest Beavertail skiffs will be there, a Vengeance and Mosquito, will also be on display and offered for sale at a special show weekend price.  You can also meet Capt. Blair Wiggins from the Addictive Fishing TV show at the Beavertail booth on Saturday from 10 to 6.  This is always a great show and the weather is fantastic this weekend.  Hope to see you there. 

Saturday, November 12, 2016

Overslot Fish From Pine Island Sound


I had one of my long time anglers on the bow throwing the fly today and he didn't disappoint.  Clem landed a 28" red and a 24" trout on the same shrimp pattern with his 8-wt.  That trout was the largest one I've ever had anybody bring in with a fly rod.  Conditions weren't easy to do this.  When the tide was perfect this morning it was too windy for tailing fish.  Once the wind dropped off in the afternoon there was too much water for sight casting.  The only thing we missed was the snook and Clem got a decent one late yesterday so that sort of counts as a Slam.  Hey, it's my boat and I make the rules. 

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Fishing Cuba

Beavertail Micro on the Cuban Flats.  Photo by Alex Suescun.
This month's issue of Saltwater Sportsman magazine features a great article about fishing the famous Zapata flats with Enridan Outfitters in Cuba.  I met the managers of this lodge last month at the Beavertail Skiffs tournament and they were great people who were really excited about their waters and introducing it to the fly fishing public.  Click here to read up on this spot and stay tuned for details about a possible hosted trip next year. 

Thursday, November 3, 2016

November On Pine Island

From this month's Coastal Angler Magazine:
November means one thing to me as a fishing guide in SW Florida: negative low tides. Seeing that little minus symbol on the tide charts when the lows happen just after sunrise and just before sunset is almost as good as finding presents under the tree on Christmas morning. These are some of the best conditions to chase tailing redfish and for die hard skinny water anglers this is as good as it gets.  

My favorite times to hit these ultra-shallow flats are about an hour before the bottom of the tide and then the first two hours of the rising water. This is when I usually find the redfish feeding most aggressively because their prey, which is mostly crabs and shrimp, is easily pinned to the bottom. This is also when you’ll find reds sticking their tails straight up into the air and waving them like signal flags. It’s easily one of the coolest things you’ll ever see out on the flats.  

One other thing to look for out there are cruising stingrays. The bigger rays attract fish like a magnet on certain flats in Pine Island sound and I’ve seen more than a dozen reds hanging on their backs waiting for a crab to flush from underneath. This is also a common behavior for other species of gamefish so it’s not a bad idea to toss a lure or fly at any passing ray. Some of the biggest trout and jacks I’ve ever seen have been landed this way. The rays are easy creatures to spot on the negative low tides, too. Just look for the large pushes of water or even their wingtips poking above the surface. 

In a previous article I wrote about the best way to go after low tide reds with flies, which is basically to bonk them right on the head with light spoon patterns. That tactic obviously won’t work if you’re throwing heavier artificials with spinning gear. One lure I’ve had great success with that doesn’t spook them as easily are Gulp Jerk Shads rigged on weedless swim bait hooks. These can be dropped right in a school of feeding reds and usually get pounced on immediately. With 10 pound braid you can throw these light Gulps very accurately over a surprisingly long distance. And Gulps really are the one artificial that actually does work better than live bait (most of the time.)  

The one last thing to know about working schools of fish on a falling tide is to obviously approach them with caution, and I don’t just mean that in order to avoid spooking them. The water during a negative low can disappear quickly and for a long time, especially on a windy day after a cold front. It’s very easy to get shoved up onto a flat or pole your way into an area while you’re chasing tailers and suddenly have no way back out, even in a very light skiff. This would be a really miserable experience if it happened at sunset and close to the mangroves where the bugs live. Keep in mind that the numbers you see on a tide chart are predictions and nothing more than that. While usually quite accurate, the depths and times of posted tides can vary significantly, especially when strong weather happens. Keep that in mind when you’re fishing around negative lows this month and you’ll keep yourself out of trouble. 

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Back From Vacation

We spent the last week in western North Carolina and here are some shots to remind everyone what fall looks like. Quite awesome, if you ask me.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Pine Island Fly Fishing Club Returns Oct. 31st

The Pine Island Fly Fishing Club will start up our meetings again for the season at 6:30PM on Oct. 31st in the Matlacha Park Community Center. There is no membership fee but we do ask for a $3 donation to help cover the cost of renting the building. This month's meeting will be a short "Welcome Back" session with no speaker but a few of us will be doing some fly tying and casting instruction. Hope to see you there.

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Skiff Review: The 2017 Beavertail Mosquito

I’ve been guiding out of Beavertail Skiffs for the last 10 years and have been more than thrilled with all of the boats that come out of their Bradenton, FL shop. My current skiff is a 2012 BT3 powered by its second Yamaha F70 outboard. It’s an almost perfect combination of shallow, stable, and silent all while giving my passengers a bone dry ride. Those features were basically impossible to find in an 18 foot poling skiff when I started guiding 20 years ago.

Last month, Beavertail introduced their newest 2017 model, also an 18 footer, called the Mosquito. This latest boat is aimed right at the serious fly anglers who want to get further back into the mangroves than everyone else. With a beam of 70 inches and a hull weighing just 540lbs, this is a very skinny running skiff. With two anglers and a full tank of gas, I’ve poled it effortlessly in water that’s probably too shallow for big reds. The Mosquito is also dead silent with no wave slapping noise anywhere on the hull to spook tailing fish.

Power choices run from 30 to 70hp but the motor that impressed me the most on the Mosquito was the new Suzuki 60 four-stroke. With the right prop this will be a 35mph boat wide open and cruise around 28mph. I’ve owned four-strokes for the last 5 years and love their fuel economy and quiet running. I can actually have a normal conversation with my passengers while the engine is turning just a few feet behind us. I always had to shout on my older boats with their louder two-stroke outboards.

Beavertail will configure the Mosquito with tiller, side or center console steering. The brave, young guys who want to vanish into the Everglades will go for the tiller rig since it’s possible to get a 5 inch draft with that option. I’m looking very hard at the center console with its thick padded forward jump seat/cooler combo. That will allow my anglers (and occasionally me) to lean back with our feet up and enjoy the ride. Hydraulic steering is standard with the center console and that makes it even more effortless to drive.

The best part owing any Beavertail is how dry they all run. In my current BT3, with its 82 inch beam, it’s honestly difficult to get wet even in very choppy conditions that would have drenched us in some of my older skiffs. The Mosquito is a foot narrower and while it’s not designed as a pure open water machine, I wouldn’t hesitate to run it across Charlotte Harbor on a 15 knot day.

This is a great time to be in the market for a new boat, especially ultra-shallow poling skiffs. You have a lot of choices out there and at least a dozen more manufactures are in the mix than there were 20 years ago. The BT Mosquito has some serious competition, most notable are the excellent Maverick HPX17 and the Hells Bay Waterman, and almost all of the manufacturers are an easy drive from our area. Best of all, Boat Show Season is starting and the 44th annual Ft. Myers show kicks off at the Harborside Event Center on Nov. 17th. This should be your first stop if a new fishing rig is on your shopping list. You’ll be able to meet several of these builders in person and compare their products side by side. Hope to see you there.

Sunday, October 16, 2016

Pine Island Spoonbills

I can't get enough of these gorgeous birds that happen to be very shy around Pine Island. Getting anywhere near them for a decent picture is a rare treat.


Thursday, October 13, 2016

A Slam For Emmett

I recently had my best day on the water so far this month fishing with 4 year-old Emmett Walker and his dad Kyle.  Emmett showed us how it's done by landing the Inshore Slam of a redfish, snook, and a lot of trout.  The best part of the trip was watching him bring in several of these fish on his 4' Ugly Stick and Zebco push-button reel.  I have to admit that I borrowed the rod from him for a while and landed a few trout on it myself.  It's more fun than you can imagine landing saltwater gamefish on a kid's bluegill gear.  Great job, Emmett.  Can't wait to get you a tarpon next summer. 

Sunday, October 9, 2016

Beavertail Skiffs 2nd Annual Owners Tournament

Once again, my neighbors Tim Gleason And Vic Maffee walked away with the Grand Champion trophy by pulling some amazing fish out of Cockroach Bay the day after Hurricane Matthew ran up the east coast. Great job and a really great time for everyone who made it there.

Thursday, October 6, 2016

Frigate Birds In Pine Island Sound

These stunning birds are still here by the hundreds on a few island in the northern part of the Sound. I never get tired of photographing them when I'm fishing that area.

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

October On Pine Island

From this month's Nautical Mile Magazine:

For starters, let me say Happy 15th Birthday to the Nautical Mile. My parents retired to Matlacha at the same time this paper first hit the stands and they mailed copies down to me each month starting with the very first issue. I’d been guiding in Key West at the time and always had Pine Island near the top of my list of places to go next. I took a five year detour further south to Vieques, Puerto Rico; since I apparently wasn’t done swearing at bonefish and permit, but in late 2009 we made the permanent move up to SW Florida and haven’t looked back since. (Now I get to swear at the redfish and snook of Pine Island Sound.)

If you’re a full time resident angler, you already know what a valuable resource the Nautical Mile has become. Chances are you pick up a copy from your favorite tackle shop at the beginning of each month and read it cover to cover. I know I do. And chances are you’ve also met publisher Jim Griffiths or heard him speak at one of the numerous fishing clubs and events he attends or sponsors throughout the year all over SW Florida. If you haven’t, you will. The guy is tireless and shows up everywhere when the topic of our local water is involved.

If you’re new to the area or just here on vacation, you’ll definitely find the Nautical Mile to be more useful than any other publication on the stands. Most of the articles contain a lot of How-to information with a handful of fish stories dropped here and there. I’m strictly an inshore flats guide, which is a very accessible type of fishing for just about anyone, so I tailor my columns toward the small boat owner with a big emphasis on fly fishing. And Pine Island is definitely one of the best areas in all of Florida to do this.

So what can you expect from our waters in October? Just about everything. This is easily one of the best months to fish anywhere in the state with the temperatures leveling off from our summer highs and a good bite happening any time of the day as long as the tide is moving. The redfish have been schooling up since early September and they can often be found in very thick schools on the flats in northern Pine Island Sound. They will literally turn the water orange when the sun hits their backs and often eat anything in their path. The huge flats inside the Burnt Store Bar are a well know area for these schools but it’s best to look for them on the weekdays when there’s less boat traffic running back and forth from the marina.

Snook have been back in season for a month and this is a fish you want to get after right at sunrise. The mangrove shoreline of Matlacha Pass, just north and south of the drawbridge, has held a nice amount of bigger snook, including a few of the elusive slot-legal ones. I recently had an angler lose a real monster on a fly rod from under the dock at Bert’s Bar. It hit a white 2/0 Deceiver and we had it on long enough to realize that it was at least a 40 incher. The 15# tippet we were using might as well have been sewing thread when it dove back under the pilings. At least the bar was closed that early and no one was watching. Painful.

Of course trout on almost every grass flat between 2 and 4 feet of water and won’t be going anywhere for a while. And as an added bonus, there are still more than a few schools of tarpon out there. This in another fish you want to target at daybreak, especially when the water is perfectly still. Look for them rolling off the Burnt Store Bar just as the sun is poking above the horizon. So that’s October in a nutshell. Best of luck out there and thanks again Jim Griffiths for letting me write for your paper these last few years.

Friday, September 30, 2016

Big Pine Island Redfish On The Fly

After a bit of a slowdown, the reds turned out in force this morning.  I only hit two different spots but we were on fish the entire time.  Angler JP from Virginia finally nailed this 27 incher after casting to at least two dozen tailers that were beyond spooky.  This red was sitting in a sand hold in northern Pine Island Sound and ate a #4 shrimp pattern called a Giblet.  The water is getting very clear up there so sight casting to these guys will only get better in the coming weeks. 

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Snook Season On The Fly

Dr. Dennis Jeter from TN with a beautiful snook on fly that will probably be legal in 2018.


I have to admit, these fish aren't being that kind to me once again. None of my anglers have managed to land a slot-legal snook with a fly since the season opened at the beginning of the month.  We're hooking plenty of undersize beauties, like the one in the photo that hit a crab pattern meant for a redfish, and that's more than OK.  Our tides and weather have been great and several of my friends landed legal snook on spinning gear this week, but the big girls are still a problem for me.  I'm sure we'll get a fly rod keeper eventually, and it's definitely going on the grill. 

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Rosate Spoonbills In Pine Island Sound

I don't come across these birds all that often when I'm fishing and this guy didn't give me enough time to get by camera set up to shoot him in the mid-day sun. They still manage to be beautiful no matter what the light is doing.

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Tailing Redfish With Topwaters

Right now the redfish are everywhere and there's nothing better than getting to hit something on the surface. I've always been a big fan of the Flats Walker lures from FlatsHQ, especially with the inline single hooks. These are as close to weedless are you're going to get from a topwater and that's especially important while our water is still warm and dead calm.  This is one of two tailing reds that my buddy Tim and I caught yesterday morning using a red and white Flats Walker.  When their heads are buried down in the mud, dragging one of these lures across their backs can be surprisingly effective.  Keep your retrieve slow with sharp twitches and you'll definitely get some attention. 

Friday, September 16, 2016

Wood Storks

It's true. Not all of the dinosaurs died off after the meteor hit the Earth 65 million years ago. Several species did survive and eventually evolved into birds. Wood storks are proof of that. These guys like to hang around the boat ramp at Matlacha Park, especially in the evening after most folk have dumped their extra bait in the water.

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Coming Soon: The New 2017 Beavertail Mosquito

These are the first shots of the pre-production Beavertail Mosquito that I took two weeks ago when we ran the boat on the Manatee River. I converted them to black and white since this is a very rough hull and the there will be a few changes made to the deck layout. I'll be posting some full color shots in the next few weeks once the first customer's boat hits the water. You can see the finished production hull for yourself on October 8th at the 2nd annual Beavertail Skiffs owners tournament open house event in Ruskin, FL.